Sacred Heart Church, founded in 1815 established a parochial school as early as 1869. The parish conducted primary grades irregularly in the 19th century. In 1903, the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity, of Stella Niagara, New York, assumed administration of the school.
In 1923, Sacred Heart added high school grades in the former Chilton house in downtown Charleston and named the institution Sacred Heart High School.
In 1940, John J. Swint, the bishop of the former Diocese of Wheeling, created Charleston Catholic High School. Area Catholics contributed to the construction of a three-story building, including science laboratories and a gymnasium, completed in 1941.
Post-war growth of Charleston led to the expansion of the school and the addition of a third floor in the 1950s. Enrollment peaked in the late 1960s and then began a slow decline in the mid-1980s.
In 1986, Monsignor P. Edward Sadie, a local priest, hired Debra K. Sullivan as the principal. Enrollment rebounded through the 1990s. In 1994 construction began on a new math and science wing. In 2000, Charleston Catholic purchased and renovated the Players Club tennis building, adding basketball, volleyball, and training facilities.
In 2014 Debra Sullivan retired as principal, handing the reins to Colleen Hoyer, Class of 1994. In the spring of 2016 plans were announced to build a 4th floor on the math and science wing, thanks to a generous lead gift from the Krupa Foundation. Construction began in the summer of 2016. The 4th floor was completed in the summer of 2017 and put in use starting with the 2017-2018 school year.
2023-2024 will mark the school’s 100th year of continuous operation.